For proper understanding of the metrics and terminologies used in Purple Analytics, it is important to understand the relationship between dimensions and metrics. Metrics are the measurable values of the attributes while dimension is a descriptive attribute that can be ascribed values. Dimension describes and defines data, whereas, metrics measure data. Below is the list.

Access Point (AP): Any item of access hardware (including signal boosters and repeaters) at a Venue, through which a User many access the internet.

Access Control List (ACL): A list which determines which network traffic is allowed Access

Access Journey: The transaction through our Captive Portal

A captive portal is a Web page that the user of a public-access network is obliged to view and interact with before access is granted. Purple captive portals are typically used by the purple clients in business such as business centers, airports, hotel lobbies, coffee shops, and other venues that offer free Purple Wifi hotspots for Internet users( who happens to be the client potential customers). 

Acid test:- A test applied to data for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.

Ages :- This is the age categories of the Wi-Fi users/ Visitors. In Purple Portal , below is the categories of user’s age


  • < 18
  • 18 - 24
  • 25 - 34
  • 35- 44
  • 45 - 54
  • 55 - 64
  • > 65+

Aggregation:- A process of searching, gathering and presenting data.

Algorithm:- A mathematical formula placed in software that performs an analysis on a set of data.

Analytics:-  is the interpretation, discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Especially valuable in areas rich with recorded or historical information. Analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance on received data which helps to guide business decisions and test scientific theories.

Analytics and Location Engine (ALE): A smart Wi-Fi location solution that uses the Aruba wireless technology to detect and locate User's mobile devices.

API: Application Programming Interface (or API) is a set of rules, methods, tools and protocols. In other words, it’s a way for different software components to interact with each other. API can provide developers with access to a number of practical features and services.

Application:- Also known as an app, these are programs designed to perform functions. This includes mobile apps.

Authentication: A User may be required to authenticate to a WiFi network before it can pass data between itself and other hosts. Authentication may require a username and password or a pre-shared key.

Authentication Method: This a method of verifying the identity of someone (a user, device, or an entity) who wants to access Wi-Fi applications. The following are the Purple Wifi authentication methods with corresponding codes.

  • Form
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Linkedin
  • Instagram
  • Wechat

Authenticated Data: This is the data-set collected for the users/visitors who are connected to the WiFi through any of the authentication method listed above. Example includes AccessUserVenueDay. E.g of the columns in AUVD are; [ id, user, venue, day, date_of_birth, source_provider_id, gender, location, platform, browser, first, month, first_seen, last seen & operating system.]

The authentication data is located or stored in the Portal Database.

Authenticated Device:-  This is the name given to any devices which has been verified and identified and linked to a user /visitor upon connecting to a WiFi at any venue during a visit in a secured manner through any of the authentication methods available on purple WiFi.

Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second).

Back End:- All of the behind-the-scenes digital operations that it takes to keep the front end of a website running, such as the coding, style, and plugins. For instance, If the front end of your website is what the audience sees onstage, the back end encompasses the stagehands, makeup artists, customers, tech crew, stage managers, etc. simultaneously running the show from backstage.

Behavioral analytics:-Using data about people’s behavior to understand intent and predict future actions.

Bounce Rate:- This metric used to determine the percentage of devices that entered a venue and leaves within short period of time (default of <3 minutes / <180 seconds). The

differences between Passer by and Bounce is the period or time at which the device is seen. Passer by is <1 seconds while Bounce is < 180 seconds).

Browser:- The program you use to access the Web — such as Chrome, Firefox, or Safari. When you experience an issue with a website, it’s best to send the browser type and version you’re using to your developer as oftentimes these issues are browser specific

Bug: An error or flaw in the website or app that keeps it from running as expected.

Business Intelligence (BI):- The general term used for the identification, extraction, and analysis of data.

Cache:- The storage of certain elements to help with faster load times from repeat website visitors. Often developers will tell you to clear your browser’s cache if they make a change on the website that you can’t see — most likely your cache is holding onto an older version and hasn’t made room for the new one yet.

Campaign Data:-  include data such as new campaign classifications and variations in addition to the standard Analytics campaign tracking parameters ( a method of identifying how users discover your site). It also simplifies and reduces the amount of campaign data you need to send in the tracking code.

Canonical Name Record (CNAME): A resource record points one domain or sub domain to another domain name.

Captive Portal: A process running on an AP that can redirect Users who have associated to a web page so that they can agree to terms of service, purchase access or enter a password.

Captive Network Assist (CNA): A configuration within a Captive Portal that helps the client to gain internet access (usually set on a network controller).

Cisco WLC: Cisco Wireless LAN Controller is a device that assumes a central role in managing Cisco's large scale deployments. The traditional roles of AP's, such as association or authentication of wireless clients and all of the configurations are done on the WLC.

Client:- This is an organisation, company or person using the Purple WiFi network or workstation that is capable of obtaining information and applications from a server. The clients include; White labels, Re sellers, Companies etc. E.g. British Land, Stonegate, McDonalds etc.

Client_Mac:- This is Purple Media access control device install at a client’s venue for the purpose of connecting devices to WiFi network technology. Each client_mac has its unique identifier assigned to network interface. E.g. 40:88:05:eb:02:27.

Cloud:- A broad term that refers to any Internet-based application or service that is hosted remotely.

Clustering analysis:- The process of identifying objects that are similar to each other and cluster them in order to understand the differences as well as the similarities within the data.

Connected or Log in :- This is the name given when a user/visitor gain access to the WiFi captive portal through devices. This might be through any of the following authentication methods; Form, Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Instagram.

Connected Mobile Experiences (CMX): A smart WiFi location solution that uses the Cisco wireless technology to detect and locate User's mobile devices.

Conversion:- This is the number of visitors who got access to WiFi for a particular purpose and were able to achieve their various purposes without encountering any connectivity or technical issues during the duration of their visits.

Conversion Rate:-  is the percentage of visitors who visited a venue, got connected to the WiFi and complete their desired goals (a conversion) out of the total number of visitors. It is important to know that a high conversion rate is indicative of successful marketing and web design: It means people want what you're offering, and they're easily able to get it effortlessly.

Comparative analysis:- It ensures a step-by-step procedure of comparisons and calculations to detect patterns within very large data sets.

COPPA: Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (Wikipedia) - US Legislation requiring age verification.

CRM “Customer Relationship Management.”:- In website development this refers to the software and applications used to gather, analyze, and maintain information on customers, donors, and prospects.

Cumulative:-It is a cumulative growth in total WiFi users i.e unique records for the company with an additional line for cumulative sessions over time period. It is increase in number of visitors by successive additions over a period.

Dashboard is an information management tool that visually tracks, analyzes and displays key performance indicators (KPI), metrics and key data points to monitor the health or performance of a business, department or specific process. They are customisable to meet the specific needs of Purple as a company and its clients.

Database:- A digital collection of data and the structure around which the data is organised. The data is typically entered into and accessed via a database management system (DBMS).

Data access:- The act or method of viewing or retrieving stored data

Data aggregation:- The act of collecting data from multiple sources for the purpose of reporting or analysis.

Data integration:- The process of combining data from different sources and presenting it in a single view.

Data integrity:- The measure of trust an organisation as Purple WiFi has in the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, and validity of the data.

Data migration:- The process of moving data between different storage types or formats, or between different computer systems.

Data mining:-The process of deriving patterns or knowledge from large data sets.

Data set:- A collection of data, typically in tabular form.

Data visualisation:- A visual abstraction of data designed for the purpose of deriving meaning or communicating information more effectively.

Decision Tree:- In data workbench, decision trees are a predictive analytics visualisation used to evaluate visitor characteristics and relationships. The Decision Tree Builder generates a decision tree visualisation based on a specified positive case and a set of inputs.

Demographic data:- Data relating to the characteristics of a human population.

Devices:- This is the name attributed to any object made or adapted for a particular purpose of connecting to a WiFi, especially a piece of mechanical or electronic equipment or gadget which has the internet and WiFi capability and can be used to connect to a WiFi at any venue during a visit or detected by the Purple designated mac address.

DevOps “Development Operations.”:- System of working that helps to keep development, IT operations, and quality assurance departments on the same page to make for better end-products and collaborations.

Domain:  A Domain Name is a naming convention used and applied to resources on the Internet.

Domain Name System (DNS): Enables User access to websites using domain names rather than IP addresses.

Duration: This is the period of time a user/visitor’s devices stay connected to WiFi at any venue.

Dwell:- is the actual length of time that a WiFi user / visitor spends on the WiFi or location. In theory, the longer the dwell time the better, as this indicates that the visitor has consumed most (if not all) of the content on a page and quite find the page interesting or find some sort of attraction which engaged them on the site or page. On Purple Captive portal, the dwell time has a default time set of >3 minutes (>180 seconds). 1= connected ------------Dwell

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): A network protocol that allows a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers configured for a given network.

Encryption: the encoding applied to the resource to make it private.

End Customer Access Page: The access page, (whether or not branded by the end customer) through which the User logs on to access the internet.

Engagement:- This is the user/ visitors connectivity and WiFi activities thresholds based on duration.

For instance. For Purple Wifi Client A set its visitors engagement thresholds as follow;

  • Not Engaged is set at default where “duration” is less than 15 minutes = 900s of Wi-Fi activities.
  • Partially Engaged is set at default where “duration” is between 15-30 minutes =(900s-1800s).
  • Fully Engaged is set at default where ‘duration” is above 30 minutes =( < 1800s).

E-shot: Individual messages or large-scale text marketing campaigns straight from the Purple Portal to enable businesses to instantly engage with their customers.

Exits:- This represent the number of visits that ended on a specific visit after the user or visitor signed out or logged out of the Purple WiFi or ended a visit on Purple website.

Exits are distinct from Bounces: Exits occur in all visits after certain dwell time, but Bounces denote only single page or occurred before dwell time.

Firewall: Software or hardware that restricts certain types of Internet traffic.

Firewall Port: All communication over the Internet between nodes (such as, your PC calling up a web page from a web server) is undertaken over an assigned port number (for example a basic web page loads over port 80). In this context a Firewall 

Port would be a setting within a Firewall that might restrict or allow traffic over a specific port.

Firmware: The software layer that provides direct interaction with hardware below the level of an Operating System.

Frequency of site visits is a metric used to indicates the overall number of visits made by each user on the venue when connected through the WiFi. This metric allows us to assess the percentage of new users on the site as well as the familiarity level or behavioural visit pattern of all returning users. The time frame can be manually set based on client’s requirements.

Front End :The part of the website or app that the user sees. If the back end of your website is everything behind-the-scenes, this is what happens onstage.

Gender: This is the sexual orientation of WiFi visitors/ users. In the purple Dataset there the available gender classes are E.g.

  • Male(Blue)
  • Female(Pink)
  • Unknown (Grey).

Goal:- is a term used to defined when visitors or users visit or connect to Purple WiFi or app and performs an action during the dwell time.E.g. A submitted form via authentication method, a link clicks, a page visit etc.

GUI(“Graphical User Interface.”):- The image of how a website is laid out and meant to be interacted with. In website design, this is how everything will ideally look in layout (your mileage may vary when you move into development given the number of different browsers and versions).

Hotspot: A WiFi network, or the hardware or system providing a WiFi network

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): A series of symbols or codes which instructs the Web browser how to display web content to the User.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP): A underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web and this protocol defines how messages are formatted and transmitted.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): The secure version of HTTP, whereby communication between a User's browser and the website are encrypted.

Internet Protocol (IP): Is the method by which data is sent from one computer to another over the Internet.

Impersonation: The facility to use the service at a different level of user access that your user account allows (for instance a Reseller of our service can Impersonate the Company Level access of of the Companies they might manage)

Key Performance Indicator (KPI):- Key performance indicators simplify web analysis data reporting so that only relevant information is presented in an easily-understood and actionable format.

Languages:- This is the languages available for the WiFi users/ visitors to connect with through the authentication method and communicate while connected to the WiFi. Some of the available languages on Purple Portal includes; English, Spanish, Mandarin etc.

Lapsed Customers:- These are the user/ visitor who has not used the WiFi or returned back to the venue nor patronise the client’s businesses for a certain period. With high possibility that such user has gone for good.

Location analytics:- Location analytics brings mapping and map-driven analytics to enterprise business systems and data warehouses. It allows you to associate Geo-spatial information with data-sets.

Local Area Network (LAN): A small network that’s confined to a local area, e.g. home or office network.

Location Based Services (LBS): Uses real-time geo-data from a device to provide information. Our cloud platform helps you understand how people move around your venue. The routes they take, entry or exit points and even queue lengths are not only possible but made easy with the Purple Portal.

Location data:-Data that describes a geographic location.

Mac Address: This is a media access control address (MAC address) of a device, it’s a unique identifier assigned to network interface controllers for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet and WiFi.

MAC Auth: Authentication based on the MAC address the client presents to the network.

Machine learning:- The use of algorithms to allow a computer to analyse data for the purpose of “learning” what action to take when a specific pattern or event occurs.

Metric:- are quantitative information about visitor activity, such as Views, Click-Through, Reloads, Average Time spent, Units, Orders, and Revenue. They are the foundation of reports and help you view and understand data relationships. It helps in performing side-by-side comparisons of different data sets about your website.

Micro Survey: A small survey that is provided on the Access Journey

New User/ Visitor:- This is the WiFi user who is connecting to Purple WiFi for the very first time through a device.

NFR: (Not For Resale) An NFR Licence this is a Licence that a Reseller might use to demonstrate our services to potential clients.

Offline Splash-page: The Pre-Authentication Splash Page presented in the Captive Portal

Online Splash-page: The Post-Authentication Splash Page presented as a redirection once the Authentication is complete

Operating System (OS): The Operating System within which applications run.

Passerby:- This is the metric indicator that determines any devices which is seen by the captive portal at any particular venue and time but without it connected to the WiFi. In the Dataset passerby are devices with duration period of less than 1 second (<1s). In the dataset in a column “connections” 0= Not connected.- Passer by,  1= connected ---Dwell

Power over Ethernet (POE): A technology that lets network cables carry electrical power.

Predictive modeling:- The process of developing a model that will most likely predict a trend or outcome.

RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service - the server that provides the Authentication service.

Real-time data:- Data that is created, processed, stored, analysed and visualised within milliseconds

Recency:- It is an indicator of the visitors’ loyalty to the client’s venue or website using the WiFi visits. It measures the days between the last and the current visit of a user / visitor. For instance, If the visitor recency is low, that indicates that visitors come back frequently and the website / WiFi services seem to fulfill certain needs of the visitors/ users. But a high visitor recency indicates a need for improvement with regards to technical performance or the content of the website or WiFi services.

The Recency metrics for Purple Wifi users/ visitors, has a default setting of 24hrs (86400 seconds) between visits. E.g. Users who revisit or reconnect after a day or 24hrs. However, this might be different based on various client’s and type of businesses.

Region: This is the category of Purple WiFi clients and users based on Locations across the globe. The 3 present regional categories are;

  • Region 1: United State of America
  • Region 2: Europe
  • Region 3: Asia and Africa.

Repeat user: This is any user/visitor who is re-visit a venue after 24 hours or more of visiting for the very first time.

Return Rate ( by user):- The rate of return of visitors/ user is the number of percentage of repeat users/visitors that re-visited and connected to a Wi-Fi at a venue after the first visit.

For instance: if a venue received 45000 unique visitors in the last 9 months. Out of which, 27336 were returning visitors,then the rate of returning visitors is calculated as follows.

So the rate of return visitors (RVR) to your site for that period was 60.75%

    E.g.      Venue A has total visitors (9 months) = 45,000

               Repeat users  = 27336

               Return rate by visitor/user = 27336 / 45000 x 100 = 60.75%.

Return Rate (by visit):- The rate of return by visit is the number of percentage of return visit recorded for any authenticated devices after connected to a Wi-Fi at a venue after the very first visit.

For instance: if a venue received 45000 total visit in the last 9 months from 20,000 users or visitors. Out of which, 30,000 were returning visitors, then the rate of return by visit is calculated as follows.

So the rate of return visit (RVR) to your site for that period was 66.7%

    E.g.     Venue A has total visit (9 months) = 45,000

              Return visit  = 30,000

              Total user/ visitors = 20,000

              Return rate by visit = 30,000 / 45000 x 100 = 66.7%.

Revisit:- This is the number of visit an authenticated device is recorded seen at any particular venue after the very first time seen.

Router: A network device that forwards data packets from one network to another.

Ruckus Smart Positioning Technology (SPoT™) LBS: A user positioning technology suite that delivers a wide-range of Location Based services.

Seamless Login: A technology which allows devices to maintain connectivity when roaming between associated Wi-Fi networks. A User will be authorised via credentials held on their device rather than having to login again.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): A networking protocol that creates a secure connection for transfer of information between a client and server. SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data.

Segmentation:- Segments are custom subsets of data, or data filtered by rules that you create. Segments are based on hits, visits, and visitors.

Sentiment analysis:- The application of statistical functions on comments people make on the web and through social networks to determine how they feel about a product or company.

Server:- A physical or virtual computer that serves requests for a software application and delivers those requests over a network.

Service Set Identifier (SSID): - The defined name of the WiFi that is broadcast from a WiFi enabled router or AP

Session:- This is an interactive information interchange, or conversation between two or more communicating devices, or between a computer and user (see login or connected to the WiFi).for a particular of time more than 5 minutes in a visit

Social Media: The term social is usually used to describe social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter

SQL:-(Structured Query Language (SQL):- A programming language for retrieving data from a relational database. It is a programming language designed specifically to manage and retrieve data from a relational database system.

TFTP: (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) A method of file transfer that we utilise to set firmware to a router.

Top Users:- This is the rating of users per venue based on their WiFi frequency and usage over time.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): An Internet Protocol providing layers of data checking to maintain integrity.

Unauthenticated Data:- This is the purple WiFi data collected from the users and store in the Location Database. The dataset consists of the following columns

Seen_ count

    Id :- This is a serial number of the data collected from the users/ visitors

    Date:- This is the date of the visits by the user or visitors at the venue

    Start:- This is the first time the user’s device was detected by client_mac at the venue.

    End:-This is the time which the user’s devices was last seen or disconnected from the Wi-Fi network.

    Duration:- This is the period the user’s devices can be seen at the venue or detected by the client_mac.

    Rssi_Min:- This is the metrics for the weakest signal strength by the user’s devices.

    Rssi_max:- This is the metrics for the strongest signal strength when the user is connected or seen at the venue.

    Seen_Count:- This is the metrics used to determine number of times a device has been detected by the client_mac. The higher the seen_count the higher the frequency of the devices and the the longer the duration. However, in some cases there is                             an issue of data misinformation or imbalance, in some rare situation where the detected devices are stationary devices at the client’s venue. E.g. A bluetooth Refrigerator or computer permanently stationed at the client’s venue will have                           a very high seen_count but will result in a misleading data about the actual visitors.

    Venue:- This is the venue where the client_mac detected any nearby devices.

UI(“User Interface.”):-  The visual elements that go into a website or app. This is the form to UX’s function.

Unique visitors:-  represent the number of de-duplicated (counted only once) visitors to your website over the course of a specified time period. Unique visitors are calculated based on the selected reporting period. Any visitor during that reporting period will be counted only once.

URL: (Uniform Resource Locator) a commonly used term for a web address

User (Visitor):- This is anybody whose device is connected to the Purple Wifi at any particular client’s venue at anytime and venue for a period of time.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP): A low-latency and loss tolerant Internet Protocol providing connections between applications on the Internet.

Users at Risk:- This refers to users/ visitors who still use the services but with constant reduction in their number of visits. Such users though still use the services but if nothing is done to encourage them to stay, they will eventually become a lapsed customers. The decline in their frequency might be influenced by many factors which includes poor services they receive and not happy about, constant technical issue, security concerns etc.

UX(“User Experience.”):- A user’s interaction with an interface with a focus on how satisfying and successful the experience is. The function to complement UI’s form.

Venue:- This is any location where Purple WiFi is available for users access through client_mac. This could be offices, Shopping malls, Football stadium, Cinema, Public Transports, Hotels etc.

Venue Tagging: a method or organising data from Venues for review in our portal systems.

Visit:- This is the time a user/visitor (device) is seen connected to purple WiFi through the client_mac at any venue.It is a distinct amount of time in between a device being seen at a particular venue with a default of 2 hours configuration setting.

Walled Garden: An environment that controls the User's access to Web content and services.

Wide Area Network (WAN): The link to wider Internet access.Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs)

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